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History

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Milestones of history of Nitra and its close surroundings
 

30 000 – 23 000 BC

First inhabitants arrived to the territory of Nitra during the Ice Age. They settled down in primitive huts in Nitra, in Čermáň, on Tobola hill close to Horné (Upper) Krškany.

There, under the Nitra castle was also discovered a temporal settlement of the oldest inhabitants of this territory. They were mammoth hunters. Findings of whole tools and and a lot of fragments made of flint stone prove, that the original inhabitants of Nitra made their tools directly at this place.

 4500 BC

The territory of contemporary Nitra (centre, Párovce, Mlynárce, Zobor) was inhabited by tribes involved in farming, breeding animals, hunting and metal processing (bronze, gold), which was typical for this region and this whole culture was named as Nitra culture. There lived also skilled craftsmen dealing with pottery.

Original inhabitants of our territory fortified the grounds of Upper town in order to protect themselves against nomadic tribes and a large settlement protected by a water ditch and ground wall arose.

 750 – 400 BC

 A large fort with 2 – 10 m high walls was built on Zobor. Its function was to protect the inhabitation of Nitra against invasions and attacks of enemy tribes. Smaller forts were in Lupka, Drážovce and Žibrica.

 400 – 0 BC

 Celts, skilled metallurgists and smiths lived here.

 4th century AD

During the period of migration of nations Goths and Quadi lived in the territory of Nitra. Then the Slavic tribes settled here.

 632 – Frankish merchant Samo supported Slavs by guns and he personally helped them to get rid of the domination of Avars. Slavic dukes appointed him a king after a victory. Under his reign a pan-tribal social union, which was called Samo´s Empire, was formed. The probable centre of the first organised state formation was the territory of Bratislava and Nitra.

 820 -   Slavic burial places in Nitra and its surroundings show, that this town was an important political, military and economical centre of a large early-feudal sate formation, which included the whole territory of contemporary Slovakia and a neighbouring part of Hungary. The ruler of this territory, which we assume succeeded Samo´s Empire, was the Duke Pribina. Nitra was the centre of the Duchy of Nitra. Pribina built the first Christian church on his territory. The church was consecrated by Salzburg archbishop Adalram during the years 829 – 833.    

 833 – Mojmír I expelled Pribina from Nitra, he took over his duchy and added to his own. A new state which became famous as the Great Moravian Empire was created.

 863 - Two Byzantine missionaries, brethren Constantine and Methodius, arrived at the territory of Slovakia to teach the Holy Scripture to Slavic nation in its own language. Constantine – Saint Cyril created the first Slavic written alphabet, the Glagolitsa, and translated first liturgical texts into old Slavonic language.

 880 – On of the most important documents of Slovak history is the letter of the Pope John VIII to Svätopluk from 880. The letter is called Industriae tuae. The Pope called Svätopluk the king and appointed Wiching the bishop of Nitra in this letter. In those times Nitra had the character of a town, consisted of five forts and more than twenty estates with developed crafts.

 907 – The end of the Great Moravian Empire.

 993 – A Benedictine monastery of St. Hippolyte. It was the oldest monastery in Slovakia. Benedictine monks dealt with agriculture. A hermit St. Andrew Svorad appeared close to the monastery, under Zobor.

 11th century – There stood a Romanic church of St. Emeramus on the castle hill. Church was surrounded by a cemetery. Centre of political power was moved to Upper town, where an early-Romanic castle was built on the castle rock.

 1018 – 1025 – Slovakia became the part of Hungarian state and Nitra became the seat of border province.

 1111 – The first Zobor Deed was edited. It mentions the belongings of the benedictean monastery of St. Hippolyte.  It also points out an existence of a school, which worked under the supervision of the Benedictine monastery and the name of the first reeve of Nitra – Peregrin.

 1113 – The second Zobor Deed was edited

1230 – Franciscans settled down in Nitra

1248 – Privilege of municipality of Nitra mentions Párovce as “Castrum Judeorum” (fortified Jewish town)

             Hungarian king Béla IV gave Nitra the status of free royal town.

14th century – Invasions of Matúš Čák Trenčiansky

1432 – Nitra was attacked by Hussite army, the town and also the castle was damaged.

1472 – Mathias Corvinus confirmed royal privileges for the Lower town.

1530 – Turkish attacks on Nitra and its surroundings started

1608 – Piarists came to Nitra

1622 – 1642 – After the Mikulov Peace the castle and the town were given to Bishop Ján Telegdy. He built Bishop Palace, rebuilt the tower, the Upper church was given a baroque style and was extended by the Lower church.

1624 – Ján Tegledy invited Franciscans to Nitra again and built a monastery for them and a church in Upper town.

1663 – Turks occupied the castle and the town. They entered the castle without resistance. It happened by betrayal of one German soldier from a garrison and a commander of Hungarian troop. During this invasion a Franciscan monastery and church were destroyed.

1664 – After Turks were forced to leave the castle bishop Thomas Pálffy built the last fortification of the castle – walls of star shape with ditches.

18th century – population of Nitra suffered from plague epidemics.

1701 – Piarists started teaching in Nitra. They continued until 1950.

1703 – During the Anti-Habsburg uprising of František Rákóczi II his troops overtook the castle and destroyed it. Lower town and Párovce were burnt down. Nitra was being plundered until the capitulation in 1708.

1715 – The first reference of Seminary in Nitra comes from this year.

1748 – Nitra was plundered by voracious locusts

1750 – Jewish community was organised in Párovce, Nitra. 21 Jewish families and a Rabbi lived there.

1765 – The first townhouse was given to Nitra as a present from Bishop Ján Gustíni. It functioned until 1880. 

1782 – Caesar Jozef II. abolished the Zobor monastery. He aslo abolished the fraternity of Kamalduli. The manufactory was set up in the Zobor monastery.

1785 – According to the territorial  reform of Jozef II., Nitra county was created, which together with Banskobystrický and Košický district formed Slovakia.

1836 – The first print shop started to work in Nitra.

1844 – The population of Nitra was 5 492 people.

1848 – The originally independent municipal districts were merged as well as Street of Upper Town, Podhradie, Kapitulská Street, Ďurčianska Street with Down town.

1848 – The last gallow was built on the hill Borina.

1854 – Monastery  and Church (of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary) Navštívenia Panny Márie were built.

1858 – The Turkish gate was broken down (it was situated on the corner of the former restaurant Králik).

1860 – Wings of the County house were set up.

1860 – The stone pit at Zobor  was opened.

1863 – The steam-mill Arpád was set up (since 1873 as a choleraic hospital).

1863 – Ronchett ´s Gym association was set up.

1863 – Building of the Nitra mills began (today shopping centre Mlyny).

1866 – Július Gisser set up the first private fencing school in Hungary 

1868 – Július Gisser built at Číneš the first swimming pool in Nitra.

1872 – Nitra charitable Jewish women association was founded.

1875 – The Music school of Eduard Artmann was set up.

1876 – The railway station was opened.

1876 – The garden restaurant was opened with a dancing hall at Zobor – Teufel´s garden.

1877 – In May the collection of Nitra district antiquties of the Roman Catholic Higher Grammar school was made available to the public. 

1878 – An omnibus (state-coach) started to transport to Zobor hill ( an indoor horse carriage).

1878 – 1879 – Neoclassical Diocesan Library was built in an eastern wing of Big Seminary. It was built according to the project of F. Schmitt and J. Lippert from Vienna, as a true copy of Szécsényi´s Hungarian National Library in Budapest. It included more than 100 000 tomes of precious books, manuscripts and 78 valuable first prints from 1473 – 1500.

1880 – 1882 – Town Hall was built.

1880 – The tower of the Church of St. Jakub on the square was destroyed.

1881 – The railway line Nitra – Topoľčany was finished. 

1882 – Classicistic building of theatre was built.

1882 – The square in front of the County house was paved.

1882 – Július Giser organised the first race in fast and endurance swimming in the river Nitra

1882 – Public steam and baths spa were set up.

 1882 – Below the Zobor hill, according to the design of Ján Lyka, the construction of the Šiator camp, the military concentration barracks, began. 

1883 - Nitra became the centre of Upper Hungarian educational association FEMKE, which exerted a strong Magyarization pressure on Slovak population.

1883 – Barracks below the Zobor hill was finished.

 County theatre was built. It resembled the smaller copy of National Theatre in Budapest. It was destroyed during the bombing of Nitra in 1945.

1884 – The Small Seminary was built.  

1885 – The Nitra Charitable christian woman association was set up (in 1894 the first creche was created)

1887 – Innkeeper Arnold built swimming pool in the park Sihoť.

1887 – Hotel Lakner was built (later Hungária, Slávia, Tatra, Dituria Golden Hoffer, Grand Hotel Sole).

1887 – The Diocesan library was opened.

1888 – The first cycler – printer Nyárayi from Rimavská Sobota – was recorded in Nitra.

1890 – Barracks were built near Turkish gate according to the design of Ján Lyka (today The City Market Place).

1890 – The Town gas company and public lighting were put into action.

1890 – The swimming school was set up at the swimming pool Sihoť.

1890 – Beginning of obscuring the distributary of Nitrička.

1891 – Town was lighted by gas lamps.

1892 – The Medical institution on the Zobor hill was built.

1893 – The Zobor pond was created by flooding the stone quarry.

1894 – The City hospital under the small hill Calvary was opened.

1894 – The Aujezs´s mill was set up (today it doesn´t exist).

1894 – The Post Office building, known as old post, was built (since 1961 temporary seat of VÚŽV)

1896 – The Nitra town brewery and malt house began with production.

1896 – The Millenium memorial on Pyramid was unveiled.

1897 – The reailway line Lužianky – Hlohovec was finished.

1898 – Innkeper Franz Mitterbauer began to provide Kneipp´s  hydrotherapy on Zobor.

1899 – Regulation of the river Nitra began to prepare.

1899 – Horse-breeding farm was built next Elizabeth´s path (today Štefánikova trieda).

1900 – Railway line Šurany – Nové Zámky was finished.

1900 – The first town cinema, Adler´s cinema, was opened on 10th November – I. hungarian (ugrian) scientific electronic theatre.

1901 – The war hospital was built under the Zobor hill on the place of barracks.

1902 – Nitra County museum was opened on the ground floor of Piarist Grammar School.

1903 – The Hotel Schiller was built on the Major Street.

1903 – The hall of justice was built (County court).

1904 – The first electric lighting in Nitra was in the Aujezs´s mill.

1905 – The river-basin of Nitrička was backfilled and canalizatedand unnecessary bridge in front of the County house was removed.

1905 – The second Nitra cinema Chromo Biograph was opened.

1906 – The notable earthquake was in Nitra on 9th January.

1906 – The prison building  was joined to the courthouse.

1908 – The Art Nouveau rebuilt of District house was finished.

1908 – Another cinema Meteor near courthouse was opened, violin self-educated František Nemava acted there.

1909 – The beginnings of football in Nitra.

1909 – The city music school was set up on Kapitulská Street. 

1910 – 1911 – according the design of L. Baumhorn a synagogue in oriental style was built.

1911 – The Calvin church on Číneš was built (today Street of Fraňa Mojtu).

1911 – The factory producing artificial ice was built.

1911 – The factory Ferrenit was built.

1911 – The cinema Uránia was formed in released Calvin chapel.

1912 – The east block of the County house was finished.

1912 – Workers cooperative houses were built under the Calvary hill.

1912 – Nitra gymnastic and fencing club was set up.

1913 – The firehouse was built near the burial ground.

1913 – The town power station was set up.

1914 – The first plane of Andrej Kvas landed on the meadow near the river Nitra.

1915 – Town was electrified.

1915 – The hospital with a railway siding and the burial ground for soldiers from the First World War 

 were built.

1918 – The Cenotaph from the First World War was dedicated in the park in September (the work of Alexander Finda).

1918 – The first number of the Slovak-Hungarian weekly newspaper Nyitra – Nitra was published on 17th  November.

1918 – Czechoslovak forces entered into the town on 10th December.

1919 – The Sokol club (Physical unity Sokol) was set up.

1919 – Activity of the Matica slovenská were restored.

1919 – The City public library was set up.

1919 – The Civil association was set up on 22th  February.

1920 – The airport was built on meadows behind the river.

1920 – The city state-coach (omnibus) started to transport to the railway station.

1921 – 1928 – National artist Janko Jesenský functioned as a reed of Nitra.

1921 - Legionnaires blowed up the Millennium memorial on Pyramid.

1921 – The national artist Janko Jesenský acted in Nitra as a district administrator until the year 1928.

1922 – The new steam mill was built after the fire.

 1922 – The population of Nitra was 15 041 people.

1922 – The Business Academy was built.

1923 – The football club AC Nitra was set up.

1923 – The Post colony behind the Zobor hill was built.

1921924 – The abattior and rendering plant were built – one of the first in Slovakia. 

1924 – The fire accured in the castle (8th August).

1924 – The Sokol choir was set up.

1924 – The first mention of organized volleyball.

1924 – Beginnings of non-motorized flying.

1925 – The town bought Sihoť from bishop´s residence.

1925 – The railway siding to the Arpád´s mill was built.

1926 – Cinema Palace was opened for public

1926 – The bus started to transport from the town to Zobor.

1926 – The cinema Palace was opened (during socialism renamed to the cinema Moskva).

1926 – The Masaryk´s flying league was set up.

1926 – Tennis courts were built.

1926 – Hockey club AC Nitra was set up.

1926 – The Town poorhouse was built (today Regional police headquarters on Kalvárska Street).

1926 – The sewage tank was built.

1927 – The sugar rafinery was built on the place of county hospital by rebuilding the starch factory from 1903.

1928 – The Trade house was built (during socialism the House of pioneers and youth).

1928 – The Country houses under the Calvary hill were built.

1928 – The restaurant Nitran was founded, byformer pub Králik from 1827.

1928 – The Missionary house for Verbist´s monastic society  was built on Calvary.

1929 – Building of the National house was finished.

1929 – The water reservoirs were built for town water station on Borina.

1930 – The summer garden cinema with dancing restaurant was opened.

1930 – The functionalist post office and telegraphic office were built.

1930 - The water supply from the city water wells was built.

1930 – The first feature-length soundtrack film was screened by the cinema Palace.

1930 – The river-basin of Nitra was removed from the area of Arpád´s mill to the present stream.

1931 – The bus started to transport to Bratislava.

1931 – The area of the State economic school was built under the Zobor hill.

1931 – The economic crisis began. About 1000 unemployed were in Nitra. 

1931 – Economic crises started. There were about 1 000 unemployed in Nitra

1932 – The swimming pool in the stadium Orol was opened.

1932 – The Roman Catholic Woman Teacher Institute was established in Vincent´s Monastery on Farská Street.

1932 – The first race of downhill skiing was realized on Zobor.

1933 – The Hotel Lőffler was built (later known as Slovan).

1933 – The magnificent Pribina's celebrations took place on the occasion of the 1100th Anniversary of the first church in Slovak territory, which was built thanks to the Prince Pribina.

1933 – Spectacular Pribina´s celebrations took place in Nitra. They commemorated the 1100th anniversary of consecration of the first church in Slovak territory, which was built by the Duke Pribina.

1934 – Flying enthusiasts began to volplane on gliders on the Borina hill and the Lupka hill.

1935 – The Chapel of St. Michael from 1739 was renewed on the Vŕšok hill.

1935 – The Frog fontain created by Tibor Bártfay was built in the City park Sihoť.

1937 – The building for financial offices was built on the place of the cinema Meteor (later Stovoprojekt).

1938 – The policlinic was built.

1938 – The branch of the railway line Zlaté Moravce – Zbehy was opened.

1939 – The textile factory Pleta was opened.

1939 – The approval of the barracks in Horné Krškany.

1940 – Nitra became the seat of the county.

1940 – The river Nitrička was covered from County house to the delta of the river Nitra (last period).

1940 – The Folk Theatre moved to Nitra.

1940 – Nitra became the seat of county.

1941 – Jaroslav Mráz set up a factory for producing planes (on the area of the army airport).

1941 – Direct expresses started to transport on the railway line Nitra – Bratislava.

1942 – Hlinka´s guard annihilated 537 Jewish shops. The first train transport with 1100 Jews was dispatched (March). Three freight trains transport 6000 Jews from Nitra railway station (April).

1944 – Nitra was occupied by Fascistic Army. Nitra was bombarded before Christmas.

1945 – Nitra was bombarded again. About 1000 people lost their lives and 53 houses were destroyed. Liberation of Nitra by Red Army lasted several days. German troops were pushed out of the town only after sever battles on 30th March.

1949 – Nitra became the seat of the region and functioned until 1960.

1952 – Agriculture University with Agronomy and Animal Production Departments was founded

1960 – Nitra region was cancelled. Nitra became the seat of district, which was extended by annulled districts of Zlaté Moravce and Vráble.

1965 – The population of Nitra was 45 588 people. A newly built Pedagogical Department started its functioning in Nitra.

1974 – Tradition of annual agricultural expositions on the grounds of Agrokomplex started. 

1986 – The population of Nitra was 86 000 people.

1993 – Spectacular celebration of the 60th anniversary of Pribina´s Days in Nitra and the 1st anniversary of Constitution of the Slovak Republic took place.

NISYS started its functioning.

1995 – Nitra was visited by the pope John Paul II.

1996 – The reconstruction of Štefánikova and Kupecká Streets – the pedestrian zone was finished.

 

 

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